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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作者: 人气:1899

高速(su)(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)是(shi)一(yi)种(zhong)可以对(dui)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)进行(xing)(xing)(xing)高速(su)(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)种(zhong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)具能够如此(ci)快速(su)(su)(su)(su)的(de)(de)(de)进行(xing)(xing)(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)除了(le)因(yin)为高速(su)(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精密(mi)度和(he)成熟的(de)(de)(de)技术之外更(geng)多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)还(hai)是(shi)得利与其优(you)秀的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong),在当(dang)前(qian)的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)床加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)业(ye)中为视(shi)线高速(su)(su)(su)(su)稳定的(de)(de)(de)高精度加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)运行(xing)(xing)(xing)快速(su)(su)(su)(su)且功能强(qiang)大的(de)(de)(de)计(ji)算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)是(shi)必(bi)不可少,需要(yao)注意(yi)的(de)(de)(de)是(shi)高速(su)(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)必(bi)须能够足够快地(di)处理数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)程序代码段以保持程序中规定的(de)(de)(de)进给速(su)(su)(su)(su)度。

 

高速加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心在(zai)实际运行(xing)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)是(shi)计算机数(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)用于测(ce)量一次工(gong)(gong)(gong)作台的(de)(de)(de)实际位置并(bing)发出一次进(jin)给命令所用的(de)(de)(de)时间(jian),对(dui)于伺(si)服周期和代(dai)(dai)码段(duan)处理时间(jian)是(shi)计算机数(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)两(liang)个重要参(can)数(shu)及其概念。计算机数(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)处理并(bing)完(wan)成(cheng)一条加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)指(zhi)令代(dai)(dai)码段(duan)规定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)位移所花(hua)费的(de)(de)(de)时间(jian)。 计算机数(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)这两(liang)个参(can)数(shu)对(dui)于高速加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心来(lai)说非常重要,因为他们(men)将决定(ding)机床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)速度和加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)度。在(zai)这里,精(jing)度意味着在(zai)采用线性插补时,用直线段(duan)来(lai)逼近零(ling)件轮廊所允许的(de)(de)(de)最大误(wu)差。

 

我们可以(yi)看(kan)到在(zai)高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中计(ji)(ji)算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统必(bi)须保证(zheng)形成精(jing)确的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹,另外,在(zai)用直线段来逼近零(ling)件(jian)轮廊时,为(wei)了保证(zheng)精(jing)度,直线段势必(bi)很短(duan),从而使得零(ling)件(jian)程序变得很长。基于此,计(ji)(ji)算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统需(xu)要一(yi)个(ge)32位的(de)微(wei)处(chu)理器,有时甚至需(xu)要多个(ge)微(wei)处(chu)理器,以(yi)完成高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)插补、高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)段处(chu)理和良好的(de)待加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹监(jian)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(Look Ahead)功能(neng)。为(wei)了能(neng)预先知道(dao)刀具(ju)路(lu)(lu)径(jing)以(yi)避(bi)免在(zai)拐(guai)角 处(chu)出(chu)现(xian)事故,计(ji)(ji)算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统最好是(shi)具(ju)有较多段加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong) NC代码(ma)轨(gui)迹监(jian)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)能(neng)力(li)(li),这与司机(ji)必(bi)须有良好的(de)视野 范围才能(neng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)驾(jia)驶一(yi)辆(liang)汽车有些类似。 目前所有较高(gao)(gao)(gao)水(shui)平的(de)计(ji)(ji)算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统都具(ju)有待加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹监(jian)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)能(neng)力(li)(li)。所谓(wei)待加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹监(jian)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong),就是(shi)计(ji)(ji)算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统在(zai)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)同时扫描待加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)代码(ma),看(kan)刀具(ju)路(lu)(lu)径(jing)是(shi)否有方(fang)向上的(de)突(tu)然(ran)改变,如果计(ji)(ji)算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统发现(xian)前面必(bi)须改变进给方(fang)向时,自(zi)动执行加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)减速(su)程序,以(yi)避(bi)免高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)偏离(li)程序中规定的(de)切削(xue)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)路(lu)(lu)径(jing)。


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